Posts Tagged ‘john betjeman’

Do you lie on the sofa or on the settee? Do you eat pudding or a dessert? Do you wear spectacles or glasses? What does it matter? Well at one time, in post war Britain, that is after 1945, your use or choice of words was said to be an indicator of the social class to which you belonged. A lot of nonsense or a matter for serious debate? Or just lighthearted fun? It all started in 1954 when an article titled Linguistic class-indicators in present-day English by British linguist Alan Ross, Professor of Linguistics at Birmingham University, appeared in a learned but obscure Finnish academic journal.

Ross’ article covered differences in word usage, pronunciation, and in writing style, but it was his thoughts on the differences in vocabulary that received the most attention. He coined the terms ‘U’ and ‘non-U’ to refer to the differences in English language usage between social classes. ‘U’ indicated upper class, and ‘non-U’, not upper class, though it focused on the aspiring middle classes. Ross considered that the middle classes preferred to use fancy or fashionable words, even neologisms (meaning a newly coined word) and often euphemisms, in their attempts to make themselves sound more refined. The speech of the working classes was not dealt with, as in many instances Ross considered they often stuck to the same plain and traditional words that the upper classes used, since being conscious of their status they had no need to make themselves sound more refined. Ross added that ‘it is solely by their language that the upper classes nowadays are distinguished since they are neither cleaner, richer, nor better-educated than anybody else’.

nancy mitford, mitford sisters, bright young people, pursuit of love, u and non-u

Nancy Mitford (1904-1973) was one of the ‘bright young people’ on the London social scene in the inter-war years, and is best remembered for her novels about upper-class life in England and France, and for her sharp and often provocative wit.

In his article, Ross used the semi-autobiographical novel The Pursuit of Love published in 1945 by the English novelist, biographer and journalist Nancy Mitford, to exemplify upper-class speech patterns. Nancy Mitford was the eldest of the renowned Mitford sisters. There were six sisters, daughters of David Freeman-Mitford, 2nd Baron Redesdale, and his wife Sydney Bowles, and they have been caricatured by the journalist Ben Macintyre, as ‘Diana the Fascist, Jessica the Communist, Unity the Hitler-lover, Nancy the Novelist, Deborah the Duchess, and Pamela the unobtrusive poultry connoisseur’.

Mitford picked up on Ross’ reference to her novel and incorporated the U and Non-U thesis into an article she was writing, The English Aristocracy, for the magazine Encounter. Her argument was that the more elegant euphemism used for any word was usually the non-upper class thing to say, or, in Mitford’s words, simply ‘non-U’. Thus it was very non-U to say ‘dentures’; ‘false teeth’ would do. ‘Ill’ was non-U; ‘sick’ was U. The non-U person ‘resides at his home’; the U person ‘lives in his house’, and so on. Nowadays, the distinction between U words and non-U seems antiquated. Were U words really plainer or ‘better’, or did the upper classes simply need to use them so as to distinguish themselves from everyone else?

U Non-U
Lunch Dinner (midday meal)
Dinner Evening Meal
Vegetables Greens
Pudding Sweet or dessert
Ice Ice cream
Jam Preserve
(no equivalent, there would be separate containers eg. salt-cellar) Cruet
(Table) Napkin Serviette (unless you are literally in France)
Sofa Settee or couch
Drawing-room or Sitting-room Lounge or front room
Chimneypiece Mantelpiece
Lavatory or loo Toilet or WC (unless you are in Italy, where ‘toiletta’ is U)
Looking-glass Mirror
Mad Mental
Decent Civil (behaviour)
(no equivalent) Rude (indecent)
(no equivalent, except possibly ‘civilised’) Cultivated or cultured (people)
Sick Ill
Die Pass on
Graveyard Cemetery
Rich Wealthy
Smart Posh
False teeth Dentures
Dinner jacket Dress suit
Knave Jack (cards)
Scent Perfume
Spectacles Glasses
Writing-paper Note-paper
Wireless Radio
Bike or bicycle Cycle
Riding Horse-riding
Master or Mistress (also prefixed eg. maths-mistress) Teacher (children also say ‘Teacher says …’)
England (Britain) Britain

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It’s not everyday there’s a victory against the march of change where market forces so often prevail regardless of the consequences. A victory for simple things, for the old ways, for something that should be cherished.

brads tea hut, bikers tea hut, motor biker, fairmead road, epping forest

The tea hut at Fairmead Road in the heart of Epping Forest.

In Epping Forest, the ancient woodland and former royal forest of over 6,000 acres that straddles the border between north-east Greater London and Essex, there are two ‘tea huts’. Here for as long as people can remember, walkers, bikers, runners, cyclists and all sorts have stopped off for a cup of tea and to have a chat. One hut is just north of High Beach, near the Kings Oak public house, where there is quite a large open space, and it is here that large numbers of people come in the summer. The other tea hut is south of High Beach at the start of old Fairmead Road, near to the Robin Hood Pub roundabout on Epping New Road, the A104.

The hut is a gathering place for motor bikers, cyclists, horse riders, rangers, tradesmen stopping off in their vans for a tea break, blokes with looked-after retro cars, local people just dropping by, as well as a host of regular users of the forest. Some may have known the hut as Bert’s Tea Hut as it was run for many years by Bert Miller. Nowadays, it’s run by Bradley Melton, Bert’s grandson, and it’s known as the Biker’s Tea Hut or to others as Brad’s Tea Hut.

brads tea hut, bikers tea hut, epping forest, dave twitchett, john betjeman, candida lycett green

David Twitchett told the Friends of Epping Forest of his cycling memories from the Fifties, and on the left is a photo he took of the tea hut as it was at the time. On the right is a photo from the 1999 book Betjeman’s Britain compiled by his daughter Candida Lycett Green. The photographer is unidentified but the photo is dated October 1955.

Apart from a hut that’s painted green with a hatch and a side door, there’s only outdoor wooden benches, but the atmosphere is as far away as you can imagine from a high street coffee shop. And that’s its attraction. Whatever the weather (though a gazebo is put up if it’s raining hard), the tea hut is open 361 days of the year, with a fair range of hot and cold food and drinks at very reasonable prices, delivered cheerfully and efficiently, though don’t expect a cappuccino or a panini.

epping forest, edward mcknight kauffer, underground electric railways company

A pre-London Transport poster from 1920 by Edward McKnight Kauffer

In June last year, the City of London Corporation, who manage Epping Forest, announced that the ‘Mobile Refreshment Facility’ at Hill Wood, that is Brad’s Tea Hut, the lease on which was due to expire in December, was to be put out to tender. The reason given was that due to reductions of 12½ % in the budget for the management of the forest, the Corporation needed to ‘ensure value for money on its licensed outlets’. A ‘Service Statement Guide’ was issued with the invitations to tender. Item 7 said:

The Tenant will be expected to employ friendly and helpful staff with good communication and customer service skills with the necessary experience to perform duties efficiently and effectively. Staff are expected to be able to speak fluently to patrons and conduct themselves professionally at all times. Ongoing statutory training and customer care training should be provided.

Like many of the clauses in this guide, this was window dressing: it is only what may be desirable, rather than what is required. So having decided to go out for tender, the Corporation under pressure of budget cuts, would be looking more at the size of the bids than whether a bidder can offer anything better than what is provided already. What the existing customers thought didn’t seem to come into it.

Bradley’s family has been running the tea hut in one form or another for 84 years. Ernie Miller, Bradley’s great-uncle started the business in a mobile unit in 1930 which he towed up to High Beach. Ernie passed it over to his brother Bert, and after that Bradley’s grandmother, Min ran the hut, when it was known as ‘Min’s’. So Bradley Melton was going to have to tender for his own business so he could continue to serve the customers that had been built up by successive members of his family over the past eight decades.

save the tea hut petition, city of london corporation, steve barron, paul morris, ralph ankers, epping forest, bikers tea hut

Tea Hut campaigners Steve Barron, Paul Morris and Ralph Ankers delivered the petition on 27 June. This was reported as far afield as the Lancashire Telegraph!

What happened next was that a petition, Save The Tea Hut, was launched by Paul Morris, a familiar face at the hut. Within a few weeks the petition gathered 9,000 signatures. The local newspaper, the Epping Forest Guardian took up the fight, as did the local MP for Epping Forest Eleanor Laing who said that the strength of local feeling should be considered in the tendering process. The petition, which called for the Corporation not to put the lease of the tea hut out to tender, was delivered to the Corporation. Whilst the delegation was welcomed into the offices at the City Guildhall, the Corporation later decided that tendering would go ahead in order to ‘test the market’.

brian dean, her majesty the queen, eric pickles, bikers tea hut, high beach, epping forest

The reply to Brian Dean said that ‘Her Majesty has taken careful note of your concern … however this is not a matter in which The Queen would personally intervene’. Nevertheless the letter was passed onto the Secretary of State for Local Government, Eric Pickles, who is also the MP for neighbouring Brentwood and Ongar.

One of the supporters, Brian Dean wrote to the Queen asking her ‘to intervene in the decision to tender out the tea hut at High Beach and, if at all possible, to put the necessary pressure in the right place that can cause this comedy of errors to be overturned’.

Someone posted on Facebook:

Over the years many people have used the hut as a focus for remembering relatives and friends that have passed on. Many people’s ashes have been scattered there, and there are many echoes of friends and loved ones that have been part of the 80-year-old community surrounding the place. People may well be gone, but they are remembered.

Bradley Melton put in his bid by the deadline of 18 July, and waited.

Paul Morris posted on Facebook:

That’s it, the chance to tender for the tea hut is over. We now have to wait and see if the views of the thousands of people that use this facility is listened to or not. Heritage, history, and family ties with the people and the past are hard to value but to thousands of us they are of paramount importance. To break such ties for us is not conservation, it is a disregard of the history and the wishes of thousands of people who wish to see the hut remain as it is with the same person running it.

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On Monday, Sir David Higgins, produced his review of the high-speed train project, HS2, which included the ambitious proposal to completely rebuild Euston railway station in London, and at the same time maximising the commercial opportunities. The original redevelopment plans for the station had been downgraded last year, but in February this year, Chancellor George Osborne came out in favour of the complete redevelopment of the station and surrounding area which would lead to the creation of more jobs, and more houses being built.

Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin in responding to the Higgins report agreed, saying that he will ask HS2 Ltd and Network Rail to work up ‘more comprehensive proposals for the development of Euston’, but added that ‘this work should include proposals for the Euston arch which should never have been knocked down and which I would like to see rebuilt’.

What was the Euston Arch?

Euston Station, when it opened on 20 July 1837 as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway, was the first mainline terminus station in a capital city anywhere in the world. The architect was Philip Hardwick, who worked with structural engineer Charles Fox. Although at first the station only had two platforms, one for departures and one for arrivals, the directors of the railway thought that:

The Entrance to the London Passenger Station opening immediately upon what will necessarily become the Grand Avenue for travelling between the Metropolis and the midland and northern parts of the Kingdom … should receive some architectural embellishment. They adopted accordingly a design of Mr Hardwick’s for a grand but simple portico, which they considered well adapted to the national character of the undertaking.

euston arch, london, painting, john cooke bourne, augustus pugin

The construction of the London & Birmingham Railway was the subject of many paintings by John Cooke Bourne. This one of the Euston Arch likely dates from 1938 not long after the arch was completed. The arch was not admired by everyone in its early years. Augustus Pugin, designer of the new Palace of Westminster, said in 1843 that it was ‘a Brobdignaggian absurdity’, and a guide to the Great Exhibition in 1951 described it as ‘gigantic and very absurd’. Courtesy of EAT

Hardwick’s arch, completed in May 1837 at a cost of £35,000, was huge, 70 feet high, and was the first great building of the railway age. It was built using Yorkshire gritstone, in the Doric style with the arch also supported by four 8 foot 6 inch-diameter columns and four piers, with bronze gates placed behind them. Gatehouses were also built on either side. The arch, which architects would call a propylaeum (‘the entrance before the gate’ to a sacred place in Ancient Greece), complemented the Ionic entrance, which still stands, to the Curzon Street Station in Birmingham at the other end of the new railway line.

great hall, euston station, waiting room, george stephenson

The Great Hall in Euston Station completed in 1846, served as a very grand waiting room. This photo was taken in 1960 and being a Sunday there are relatively few people around. The staircase leads to the gallery and shareholders’ room, past the 1852 statue of George Stephenson. Tickets were bought from hatches in nearby passageways.
© Ben Brooksbank/Creative Commons Licence

In 1849, in order to cope with the increasing number of passengers, Hardwick’s son, Philip Charles Hardwick designed a magnificent waiting room, the Great Hall. This was built in the Italianate Renaissance style, and was 126 feet long, 61 feet wide and 64 feet high, with a coffered ceiling and a sweeping double flight of stairs leading to offices at the northern end of the hall.

The early station was set a long way back from Euston Road and the arch faced Drummond Street that ran east-west through the area, though only the western end of the street going towards Hampstead Road remains today. For many years there was nothing on the arch to say that it was the entrance to the station, but in 1870 the London and North Western Railway Company inscribed ‘EUSTON’ on the architrave in letters of gold. A road was also created for the first time from Euston Road to the portico.

By the end of the 1950s, the station was considered to be poorly located and impracticably small, and at odds with the British Transport Commission’s (BTC) plans to upgrade and electrify the main line between Euston and Scotland as part of its Modernisation Programme. In January 1960 the BTC served notice on London County Council (LCC) as planning authority that it intended to demolish the entire station, including the arch and the Great Hall, which were both Grade II listed buildings. To allow for longer platforms and a  much larger station concourse, the station was to be extended southwards over Drummond Street and Euston Square towards Euston Road. This led to an almost two-year long battle to save the Great Hall and the arch.

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You may have heard of this person. The name sounds unusual. It doesn’t sound English. Is he something to do with music? Is he a painter? If you have anything to do with architecture or historic buildings you will know who he is, or rather was.

nikolaus pevsner, art, architecture, historian

Nikolaus Pevsner
1902-1983
‘Art history in England was, at its worst, an activity a bit like stamp collecting’

Often referred to as ‘Pevsner’, Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, was a German-born British scholar of the history of art and architecture. He is best known for his extraordinary series of county-by-county architectural gazetteers, The Buildings of England, published between 1951 and 1974, and for his classic An Outline of European Architecture published by Penguin in 1942 as a Pelican paperback. Outline has the notable quote:

A bicycle shed is a building; Lincoln Cathedral is a piece of architecture. Nearly everything that encloses space on a scale sufficient for a human being to move in is a building; the term architecture applies only to buildings designed with a view to aesthetic appeal.

An Outline of European Architecture went into seven editions, was translated into sixteen languages, and sold more than half a million copies.

Pevsner was born Leipzig, Saxony in 1902, the son of a Jewish fur importer. In 1933 he was forced out of his teaching post in Göttingen, where he lectured on the history of art and architecture, a result of the ban on Jews being employed by the Nazi state, though earlier he had been an enthusiast of Hitler’s proposals for regenerating Germany economically. He moved to England where he rebuilt his life. By the late 1950s he was a national institution.

nikolaus pevsner, european architecture

First published in 1942, Nikolaus Pevsner’s grand tour of Romanesque basilicas, Gothic cathedrals, Renaissance villas and Baroque churches has become a seminal work which has inspired countless students of architecture.

Amongst many distinguished positions, Pevsner was the first professor of art history at Birkbeck, University of London (from where he would eventually retire in 1969); he was acting editor for the Architectural Review between 1943 to 1945, he was Slade professor at Cambridge for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, and he was a founding member in 1957 of the Victorian Society.

The unique inventory of English buildings contained in the 20,000 pages and forty-six volumes of The Buildings of England, has been universally acclaimed as a triumph of scholarship, insight and perseverance. Is it said that no student or scholar of architecture would think of touring England today without a ‘Pevsner’ in their hand (perhaps one of a handful of nouns derived from the name of a person). But how did it all start?

In England, Pevsner was surprised to find that there was no comparable guide to English architecture along the lines of the invaluable Handbook of German Monuments published by the pioneering architectural historian Georg Dehio who had cycled his way round every important building in Germany. Following an invitation from Allen Lane, founder of Penguin Books, to suggest ideas for future publications, he proposed a series of pocket-sized county guides to be sold at an affordable price.

nikolaus pevsner, field trip, cathedrals

Nikolaus Pevsner leads a field trip on cathedrals

Work began on the series in 1946. Two part-time assistants, both German refugee art historians, were employed by Penguin to prepare notes for Pevsner, working in libraries and amassing a huge file of notes on every place of interest. Then during the Easter and Summer breaks, the only time that Pevsner could afford to take out from his other commitments, he would take off for the next county in his list in an old Wolseley Hornet car often driven by his wife Karola (‘Lola’). They would drive from dawn until dusk visiting each and every building of historic or architectural interest, usually briefly, with Pevsner scribbling in a notebook. They stayed in hotels, inns and B&Bs, and every evening long into the night, Pevsner would write the first draft at whatever table was to hand. It was a demanding and hectic schedule, a monumental task.

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