Archive for the ‘Television’ Category

Back in 1962, Dixon of Dock Green had been a regular staple police programme on Saturday night television for nine years. In it PC George Dixon, played by Jack Warner portrayed the archetypal local bobby. But the series was criticised for being too cosy, predictable, and unrealistic. Then along came a new police drama with gritty realistic stories that changed all that, a BBC series that ran for 801 episodes, Z-Cars.

bbc, z-cars,colin welland, joseph brady, brian blessed, james ellis, john slaterThe series was located in the fictional town of Newtown based on Kirkby in Lancashire (later Merseyside), and the name Z-Cars relates to an imaginary Z Division of the local constabulary. The two patrol cars that featured in the programme were Z Victor 1 and Z Victor 2 and their call sign into the control centre was ‘Z Victor 1 (or 2) to BD’, BD being the code in Lancashire for the radio controller.

The series was not named after the Ford Zephyr cars used in the programme, though the Zephyr was used as a standard patrol car by the Lancashire Constabulary.

The theme tune to Z Cars was based on an old Liverpool sea shanty, Johnny Todd, which you can listen to here. . Compare this with the theme to the TV programme here  The theme was later adopted by Everton Football Club as its official anthem.

Of the 801 episodes that were broadcast between January 1962 and September 1978, only about 40% of them have survived. The original series was one of the last British television dramas to be screened as a live production. The episodes up to 1970 were made in black and white. There is more information about the series here.

When the first run ended in 1965, two of the detectives Det Chief Insp Barlow, played by Stratford Johns, and Det Sgt Watt, played by Frank Windsor, were spun into a separate series Softly, Softly.

But the most remarkable fact about the series was the number of actors that appeared in the series. It became a right of passage for budding actors, many of whom became household names and well-known actors. Around 1,400 actors appeared over the 16 years that the series was broadcast (there were 1467 characters in total).

Here are the names of some of the actors, together with photos of a few of them that you may recognise.

More than 100 Episodes (13 actors)

James Ellis Sgt Lynch 627 episodes, 1962-1978
John Slater Det Sgt Stone 421 episodes, 1967-1974
Douglas Fielding PC Quilley 340 episodes, 1969-1978
Bernard Holley PC Newcombe 277 episodes, 1967-1971
Ian Cullen PC Skinner 220 episodes, 1969-1975
Derek Waring Det Insp Goss 216 episodes, 1969-1973
Joseph Brady PC Weir 178 episodes, 1962-1978
Jennie Goossens BD Girl 146 episodes, 1967-1971
Paul Angelis PC Bannerman 130 episodes, 1967-1969
Frank Windsor Det Sgt Watt 129 episodes, 1962-1978
Stratford Johns Det Chief Insp Barlow 126 episodes, 1962-1965
Brian Blessed PC Smith 115 episodes, 1962-1978
Robert Keegan Sgt Blackitt 109 episodes, 1962-1965
arthur lowe, bernard hepton, brian blessed, brian wilde, christopher timothy, z-cars

Arthur Lowe, Bernard Hepton, Brian Blessed, Brian Wilde, & Christopher Timothy

25 to 99 Episodes (29 actors)

Colin Welland PC Graham 88 episodes, 1962-1978
David Daker PC Culshaw 84 episodes, 1967-1977
Terence Edmond PC Sweet 78 episodes, 1962-1964
Stephen Yardley PC May 68 episodes, 1965-1978
John Woodvine Det Insp Witty 64 episodes, 1963-1969
Allan O’Keefe PC Render 63 episodes, 1971-1978
Ron Davies PC Roach 60 episodes, 1962-1969
John Collin Det Sgt Haggar 57 episodes, 1962-1978
Geoffrey Whitehead PC Baker 51 episodes, 1964-1975
Pauline Taylor WPC Parkin 50 episodes, 1967-1971
John Swindells PC Bowman 45 episodes, 1965-1973
Joss Ackland Det Insp Todd 42 episodes, 1964-1968
Pat Gorman PC Knowles 41 episodes, 1967-1978
Michael Forrest Det Con Hicks 39 episodes, 1962-1970
Jack Carr PC Covill 39 episodes, 1971-1972
Constance Carling WPC 38 episodes, 1969-1978
Jeremy Kemp PC Steele 35 episodes, 1962-1978
John Barrie Det Insp Hudson 34 episodes, 1962-1968
Barry Lowe PC Horrocks 33 episodes, 1964-1977
Leonard Williams Sgt Twentyman 31 episodes, 1962
Sebastian Breaks PC Tate 30 episodes, 1967-1970
Geoffrey Hayes Det Con Scatliff 29 episodes, 1969-1974
John Wreford PC Jackson 29 episodes, 1967-1968
David Jackson Det Con Braithwaite 27 episodes, 1965-1978
Patrick Milner PC 26 episodes, 1964-1978
Ray Lonnen Det Insp Moffat 27 episodes, 1970-1977
Lynn Furlong WPC Stacey 25 episodes, 1962-1977
Brian Grellis Det Sgt Bowker 25 episodes, 1967-1978
Paul Stewart Sgt Chubb 25 episodes, 1974-1978
colin welland, davy jones, dudley foster, frank windsor, fulton mackay, z-cars

Colin Welland, Davy Jones, Dudley Foster, Frank Windsor & Fulton Mackay

24 to 10 Episodes (12 actors)

Virginia Stride Dudley Foster Harry Towb
Stephanie Turner John Challis Ronald Leigh-Hunt
Donald Gee Kate Allitt Alethea Charlton
Lynn Farleigh Leslie Sands Barry Keegan
geoffrey palmer, george sewell, glenda jackson, james ellis, john laurie, z-cars

Geoffrey Palmer, George Sewell, Glenda Jackson, James Ellis & John Laurie

Five to Nine Episodes (25 actors)

Diana Coupland Windsor Davies Dudley Sutton
Frederick Jaeger Michael Balfour Susan Jameson
George Sewell Claire Nielson Cyril Shaps
Nicholas Smith Jo Rowbottom Fulton Mackay
Bernard Kay Reginald Marsh John Nettleton
Jack Smethurst William Gaunt Sydney Tafler
Leonard Rossiter Bryan Pringle Bernard Hepton
Garfield Morgan Leslie Dwyer
John Stratton Lynda La Plante
john thaw, judi dench, kate o'mara, leonard rossiter, lesley judd, z-cars

John Thaw, Judi Dench, Kate O’Mara, Leonard Rossiter & Lesley Judd

Three or Four Episodes (46 actors)

Sam Kydd Lynda Bellingham Colette O’Neil
Glyn Houston Anthony Valentine Kenneth Cope
Trevor Bannister Davy Jones William Lucas
Norman Rossington Judy Parfitt Richard Pearson
Bernard Archard Yootha Joyce Brian Cant
John Thaw Angela Douglas Luan Peters
Patrick Troughton Ray Brooks Gillian Raine
Sheila White Dermot Kelly Jack Wild
Kate O’Mara Geoffrey Bayldon Liz Gebhardt
Jon Finch Hylda Baker Paul Darrow
Edward Judd Nerys Hughes Paula Wilcox
Anne Stallybrass John Sharp Patricia Brake
George Baker Brian Wilde Elisabeth Sladen
Philip Madoc Petra Markham Philip Jackson
Sharon Duce Peter Purves
Anita Carey Godfrey Quigley
lynda bellingham, martin shaw, mollie sugden, patsy kensit, paul eddington, z-cars

Lynda Bellingham, Martin Shaw, Mollie Sugden, Patsy Kensit & Paul Eddington

Two Episodes (62 actors)

Johnny Briggs Frank Middlemass Angela Down
June Barry Mollie Sugden Sally Geeson
Keith Barron Donald Sumpter Graham Haberfield
John Dunbar Gillian Wray Patsy Rowlands
Alfred Burke Tom Baker Derrick Slater
Julian Glover Vincent Ball Sally Thomsett
Gordon Rollings Caroline Dowdeswell Jackie Trent
Coral Atkins Derek Fowlds Cheryl Campbell
Rosemary Leach Walter Gotell Colin Jeavons
Anthony Booth Kenny Lynch Susan Littler
Milo O’Shea Ann Lynn Campbell Singer
Peter Sallis Terence Rigby Diana Dors
Glenda Jackson Charles Tingwell Michael Kitchen
Gerald Sim Roger Brierley Tony Selby
Bryan Marshall John Bindon Rosalie Shanks
Michael Goodliffe Brian Cox Pippa Steel
Deirdre Costello Ian Lavender Alison Steadman
Morag Hood Pauline Munro John Duttine
Polly James Robert Powell Sally Knyvette
Andrew Keir Kenneth Cranham Brenda Fricker
Malcolm McDowell Anna Cropper  
peter purves, roy barraclough, stratford johns, susan jameson, tom baker, z-cars

Peter Purves, Roy Barraclough, Stratford Johns, Susan Jameson & Tom Baker

One Episode (111 actors)

Martin Shaw Jill Carson David Collings David Schofield
Kathleen Byron Geoffrey Chater Philip Latham Bill Treacher
Eric Barker Paul Eddington John Laurie Tom Conti
Judi Dench Peter Graves Francis Matthews Jill Gascoine
Arthur Lowe Kenneth Haigh Patrick Mower Hugh Lloyd
Denise Coffey Thora Hird Richard O’Callaghan Kenneth MacDonald
James Beck Renee Houston Mike Pratt Tony Melody
Roger Delgado Freddie Jones Maureen Pryor Wendy Richard
Patrick Duffy Geoffrey Keen Saeed Jaffrey Barbara Shelley
Noel Dyson Dinsdale Landen Edwin Richfield Keith Chegwin
Frank Finlay John Longden Arnold Ridley Angela Crow
Carole Ann Ford Derek Nimmo Deirdre White Patsy Kensit
Frazer Hines Liam Redmond Nicholas Ball Angus MacKay
John Hurt Alan Rothwell Stephanie Cole Roy Marsden
Lesley Judd Vladek Sheybal Sheila Gish Bob Peck
Cyril Luckham Geoffrey Toone Gabrielle Lloyd Gwen Taylor
Patrick Magee David Warner Geoffrey Palmer Ralph Bates
Warren Mitchell Nicol Williamson Stephen Rea Julian Holloway
Suzanne Neve Helen Worth Roy Barraclough Michael Byrne
Meg Wynn Owen Eileen Atkins Wanda Ventham Elaine Donnelly
Patricia Routledge Alfie Bass Lynda Baron Jennifer Hilary
Carmen Silvera Bernard Bresslaw Peter Copley Kevin McNally
Richard Vernon Ruth Dunning Wendy Padbury Alun Armstrong
Michael Williams Wendy Hiller Christopher Timothy Warren Clarke
Ray Barrett Gemma Jones Barbara Flynn Iain Cuthbertson
Rodney Bewes Roddy McMillan Louise Jameson Zia Mohyeddin
James Bolam Ian McShane Judy Loe John Rhys-Davies
Richard Caldicot Ann Mitchell Sharon Maughan
arnold ridley, eileen atkins, john hurt, francis matthews, patricia routledge, z-cars

Arnold Ridley, Eileen Atkins, John Hurt, Francis Matthews & Patricia Routledge

Going through these names one thing stands out, that there are no black actors and only two Asian actors, Saeed Jaffrey and Zia Mohyeddin. The gritty realism of life in a northern city that Z-cars brought to British viewers was obviously not reflected in the casting, even allowing for police forces having few people from ethnic minorities within their ranks in the 60s and 70s.

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bbc, alexandra palace, london, television, transmitter mast

The first public television programmed transmissions in the world were sent from the BBC studios at Alexandra Palace in north London. A picture of the transmitter mast would appear at the start of the day’s programmes which were introduced with the words ‘This is direct television from the studios at Alexandra Palace’. Well into the 1950s, the news was introduced by stirring music, Girls in Grey by Charles Williams, and the words ‘BBC News & Newsreel’ revolving around the top of the mast.

On 1 September 1939, a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey’s Gala Premier, was the last television programme to be broadcast by the BBC before the service was suspended due to the imminent outbreak of the Second World War. There were fears that the single VHF transmitter at Alexandra Palace would serve as a direction-finder for enemy aircraft approaching London. Also, there were only about 20,000 viewing families in London and the Home Counties of the regular ‘high-definition’ service with 405 lines that had been first launched on 2 November 1936, and it was a luxury the nation could not afford.

When I was born on 13 January 1946, it was only eight months since the end of the Second World War in Europe. The previous November, David Lean’s film Brief Encounter starring Celia Johnson and Trevor Howard was released, and on the last day of 1945, Britain received its first shipment of bananas since the outbreak of war. Four days after I was born, the first meeting of the United Nations Security Council was held in London; a month later the American dance craze, the Jitterbug, swept Britain; and in early March, Winston Churchill delivered his ‘Iron Curtain’ speech warning of the Soviet Union’s intention to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the west.

Even if my parents had not otherwise been occupied, they wouldn’t have been thinking about what was on the TV that night as television broadcasts were not resumed until 7 June 1946. One of the first programmes that was then shown, it is hard to believe, was the same Mickey Mouse cartoon from 1939. There again, my parents didn’t get a television until the late 1950s. But I can remember watching the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1953 on a tiny rented set with a 9″ screen in a crowded upstairs room at my aunt and uncle’s house in Earlsfield, south-west London.

radio rentals radio, bakelite, bush television, coronation, bbc

Left: a typical Radio Rentals set from the 1950s with a Bakelite cabinet. Right: a 1950 Bush black and white television set, model TV22, with a 9″ screen and again with a Bakelite body. There was only one channel, the BBC. This was the set from which millions of people watched the coronation in 1953. It was sold at a price between £36-2-6d (£36.12 in decimal currency) and £42 guineas or £44-2-0d (£44.10), about two month’s pay for the average worker.

So if they hadn’t been busy dealing with me or my older brother, they might have sat down to listen to the ‘wireless’. The BBC had been broadcasting on radio, though only in the London area, since November 1922, so by 1946 there must have been a good choice of programmes to listen to. So what was on, and how can I find out?

Luckily, the BBC has just launched a test version of an online searchable archive of the listings that appeared in the Radio Times from 1923 to 2009, which you read about here.

It’s called the BBC Genome Project. 4,469 back copies of the Radio Times have been scanned using optical character recognition software (OCR). The archive is still in its early stages as inevitably many scanning errors have crept into the data, and members of the public are being asked to let the BBC know of these errors, as well as changes to the advertised schedules that would obviously not have appeared in the Radio Times. Nonetheless it is an amazing resource for serious research, to check obscure facts for a quiz, or like me to find out what was on, on a notable date in the past.

Incidentally a genome is the genetic material of an organism, which is encoded in DNA, or in some cases in RNA, and the Human Genome Project is the huge international scientific research project with the goal of mapping all of the genes of the human genome. The BBC says it chose the name because the corporation likened each of its programmes to ‘tiny pieces of BBC DNA’ that will form a ‘data spine’ once reassembled in the archive. I think the BBC use of the word genome is misplaced. Anyway back to the 13 January 1946.

Here is the link to the archive. At the bottom of the page under ‘Browse the issue archive’, you are asked to either ‘Choose a year’ or ‘Choose a decade’. The latter option didn’t work for me so having selected the year 1946, I then selected issue 1163 dated 11 January, the London edition. The contents of this issue then appear, and I see that on 13 January, there are two stations, the BBC Home Service Basic and the Light Programme.

radio times, alexandra palace, transmitter mast, princess elizabeth, queen elizabeth, aircraft carrier eagle

Left: this cover of the Radio Times from 23 October 1936 shows the new transmitter at Alexandra Palace. Right: this black and white cover from 17 March 1946, with the sub-title ‘The Journal of the BBC’, still shows the effects of post-war austerity. The top photograph is of HRH The Princess Elizabeth, the future Queen, who was due to attend the launch of the new aircraft carrier, Eagle, in Belfast.

The Home Service provided news, serious drama, discussion, classical music etc, and the Light Programme arose from the wartime success of the BBC Forces and General Forces Programmes and provided light entertainment such as popular drama, comedy, bandshows etc. The Third Programme, predominately classical music, wasn’t broadcast until September 1946. In September 1967, the Home Service became the current Radio 4, the Third Programme became Radio 3, the Light Programme was re-branded as Radio 2, and a new radio channel, Radio1, was added.

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flannan isles, isle of lewis, outer hebrides, scotland, atlantic ocean

The Flannan Isles are 20 miles west (to the left) of the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides.

St Kilda is well-known as the isolated archipelago 40 miles (64 km) west of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland in the North Atlantic Ocean. Following crop failures and illness, the remaining population of 36 people on the only inhabited island, Hirta, was evacuated in 1930. St Kilda became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986 reflecting both its natural and cultural significance. However there is another much less well-known group of remote islands off the Outer Hebrides, which is the location of an enduring mystery which occurred in December 1900, when all three keepers of the lighthouse on an island there vanished without trace.

The Flannan Isles (or Na h-Eileanan Flannach in Gaelic) or Seven Hunters lie 20 miles (32 km) west of the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. Not as far out to sea as St Kilda, but further north. And since the automation of the Flannan Isles Lighthouse in 1971, no one has lived there, although the islands became a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1983. The lighthouse, and a ruined chapel dedicated to St Flannan, is on the largest island, Eilean Mòr (Big Isle).

eilean mòr, flannan isles, lighthouse, atlantic ocean

A huge inlet on the north side of Eilean Mòr looking east towards the lighthouse. The walk to the lighthouse up the slope on the right is steep, but it is insignificant compared with these cliffs. © Chris Downer/Creative Commons Licence

The lighthouse was constructed for the Northern Lighthouse Board (NLB) between 1895 and 1899 near the highest point of Eilean Mòr at a cost of £6,914. All the materials in the building of the 75 feet high lighthouse had to be hauled 150 feet up cliffs from supply boats. The lighthouse was first lit on 7 December 1899. There was no wireless communication, the only form of communication being a series of semaphore-style balls on posts which could be seen from the Hebrides on a good day.

Other than its relative isolation, it would be little different from most of the lighthouses built off the coasts of Britain were it not for the events which took place just over a year after it was commissioned. In December 1900, the lighthouse was manned by a three-man team (James Ducat, Principal Keeper; Thomas Marshall, Second Assistant; and Donald Macarthur, Occasional Keeper), with a rotating fourth man (Joseph Moore), on leave on the Isle of Lewis.

On 15 December, the steamer Archtor on passage from Philadelphia in the United States to Leith near Edinburgh noticed as it passed the islands that the light was not working, and this was reported three days later on docking at Oban further south. The scheduled relief ship for the lighthouse, the Hesperus, which was based in Stromness in the Orkney Islands, had been due to visit on 20 December but it was delayed because of rough weather and did not reach Eilean Mòr until noon on Boxing Day, 26 December. When they arrived, ominously, none of the lighthouse keepers were there to welcome them ashore, the flag was not flying, and none of the usual provision boxes were ready on the landing stage for re-stocking.

When Joseph Moore was put ashore, alone, he found the gate and main door to the lighthouse compound closed, the beds unmade, the clocks stopped, and no trace of the keepers. He returned to the landing stage to tell the captain of the Hesperus, Jim Harvey, the bad news. Moore then carried out a further search with two of the crew. The lamps were trimmed and refilled, the lens and machinery had been cleaned, the washing-up had been done, and there were cold ashes in the grate. But a set of oilskins belonging to Donald McArthur was found suggesting that the keeper had left the lighthouse without them, which was surprising considering the severity of the weather. Other than that, an overturned chair by the kitchen table was the only sign of anything amiss in the lighthouse. Outside, on the rest of island, the three lighthouse keepers were nowhere to be found. They had vanished. (more…)

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PointofViewIf the UK media can be believed the British public is clamouring for a greater use of referenda. People, they say, crave a direct say in determining the outcome of a debate or to dictate the direction of government action. Two issues dominate this thinking. The first is the UK’s continuing membership of the European Union and the second is the forthcoming vote on Scottish independence.

You may wonder why the media is behaving like this when they know as well as I do that we have a settled mature system of parliamentary democracy where decisions are taken by Parliament and the Government on our behalf. Every citizen is able to vote for their Member of Parliament and if they don’t like the way they have voted they can vote for someone else next time. However the reality is that a growing number of voters feel alienated or perhaps feel distant from the business of government and, God help us, politics!! In such circumstances a single issue referendum can appear attractive.

ReferendumDice1However, without being too condescending about it, most public issues are quite complex and few members of the public have the knowledge, expertise and in particular the time to get to grips with the pros and cons of arguments. That’s why, in theory, we have MPs appointed as government ministers who specialise in the affairs of a particular government department and who enjoy the support of experts and administrators of all kinds. Most importantly, ministers are accountable to Parliament, and MPs to the public who elected them, and they can be kicked out every five years in elections if we don’t like what they have done in our name. I contend that most people are busy enough with their own lives to be expected to additionally become experts in the pros and cons of, say, a parliamentary bill or a particular Government policy.

In my view referenda are a gift to obsessives and those with an axe to grind. They reduce issues to their bare essentials and ignore the broader consequences. I have no doubt that the death penalty would be brought back if the issue was subjected to a referendum. Would we really want that? Secondly the arguments for and against membership of the EU are extremely complex and in my view are impossible to whittle down to a simple yes or no answer.

ReferendumDice2There are exceptions of course, but rarely an issue does emerge that merits a referendum and I concede that for the people of Scotland the question of independence is one. However in my experience the media, and in particular certain ‘right wing’ print media, are greatly exaggerating the extent to which the public generally is clamouring for more referenda. Contrary to what they say there is very little evidence to support the assertion that public discourse in the pubs and clubs of the land is dominated by discussion on the need for a referendum on the EU. In fact the limited public surveys completed show that the European issue comes way down the list of subjects being discussed.

I do not consider myself to be an apologist for the status quo and I agree that politics in the UK is not conducted particularly well and certainly not in the interests of ordinary people. However I don’t believe a greater use of referenda is the answer as I fear that they would risk undermining the very principle of parliamentary democracy itself. This would be a perverse outcome when so many nations around the world are currently fighting to overturn unelected regimes in favour of parliamentary democracies.

Instead we should be considering steps to invigorate our parliamentary system to make it more relevant and accountable to the electorate and especially to younger voters, who if Russell Brand is to be believed, have given up on voting. Clearly this task is not helped by the low standing afforded to politicians by the public. There is a lack of trust and confidence in MPs that they can have any meaningful impact on our lives as UK citizens. Additionally many people are cynical and distrustful of all politicians believing them to be all the same and full of self-interest. The expenses debacle and to an extent the Iraq war, were clearly contributory factors. (more…)

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How is the copyright on a liquorice allsort and a caricature of former prime minister Margaret Thatcher connected?

In February 2010, Sylvester McCoy who played the seventh Doctor Who from 1987 to 1989, claimed, according to DailyTelegraph, that he and Andrew Cartmel, a script editor at the time, were part of a conspiracy in the late 1980s to give episodes of Doctor Who an anti-Thatcher plot. In the article, McCoy, who took over as Doctor Who three months after Margaret Thatcher’s third election victory in 1987, said that they brought politics into the show ‘deliberately’ but ‘very quietly … We were a group of politically motivated people and it seemed the right thing to do. Our feeling was that Margaret Thatcher was far more terrifying than any monster the Doctor had encountered’.

Cartmel, who was asked by the programme’s producer at the time, John Nathan-Turner, what he hoped to achieve in being the show’s script editor, recalled ‘My exact words were: I’d like to overthrow the government.’ In an article in The Guardian however in 2013, John Nathan-Turner is said to have replied ‘Oh you can’t do that on Doctor Who, all you can do is say that purple people and green people are equal and should live in harmony’.

sheila hancock, ronald fraser, happiness patrol, doctor who, bbc, margaret thatcher

Sheila Hancock with Ronald Fraser as Joseph C. Though Sheila Hancock was not told that the character of Helen A was based on Margaret Thatcher, she realised this early on and ‘went for it’. Hancock stated that she ‘hated Mrs Thatcher with a deep and venomous passion’.

The Happiness Patrol written by Graeme Curry was broadcast in three episodes in November 1988 and was part of the 25th series of Doctor Who. It featured a transparent caricature of Thatcher, Helen A, the vicious and egotistical ruler of an Earth colony Terra Alpha, played by Sheila Hancock. On Terra Alpha, sadness is against the law – a law zealously enforced by the Happiness Patrol. The penalty for those found guilty of gloom or melancholy is death in a stream of molten candy prepared by Helen A’s chief executioner and confectioner supreme, the psychopathic and robotic killer, Kandy Man, played by David John Hope.

The first episode opens with the Doctor, and his young companion Ace, travelling to Terra Alpha to investigate why its citizens are disappearing without trace. The last episode shows the time travellers helping to foment rebellion amongst the downtrodden population who toil in the factories and mines. The Doctor calls on the ‘drones’ to down their tools and revolt. The script-writers intended this to be an echo of the miners’ strikes and printers’ disputes during Thatcher’s first two terms in office.

doctor who, kandy man, happiness patrol, bbc

Doctor Who confronts the Kandy Man. The appearance of the Kandy Man has been variously described as the weirdest or most ridiculous monster of the era. The Doctor however simply outwits the Kandy Man by gluing him to the floor with lemonade.

In the final episode, while a revolution rages outside the palace walls, the Kandy Man is destroyed by a flow of his own ‘fondant surprise’ which dissolves his external candy shell. And in a low-key comeuppance, the Doctor confronts Helen A and tries to explain that happiness can only be understood if counterbalanced by sadness. As Helen A weeps over her dearly departed lapdog monster Fifi, she experiences her own sadness.

Cartmel said that ‘Critics, media pundits and politicians certainly didn’t pick up on what we were doing. If we had generated controversy and become a cause célèbre we would have got a few more viewers but, sadly, nobody really noticed or cared’. The story has been described as a political allegory of Thatcher’s Britain, and as a morality tale. The Daily Telegraph article added that a spokesman for the BBC said it was ‘baffled’ by the claims. Following falling viewing numbers, no further series of Doctor Who were commissioned after the 26th series in November 1989. Except of course in 2005, the BBC relaunched Doctor Who after a 16-year absence.

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PointofViewHere in the UK and throughout most of the world there are a plethora of TV programmes like ‘X Factor’, ‘The Voice’, ‘Britain’s Got Talent’ and ‘Big Brother’, that tend to encourage adults and children alike to see themselves as special. They may be extrovert or they may have a body good enough for the cover of Vogue, but are they really special?

talent show, young people

Talent shows, appealing particularly to young people, are regular events in all parts of Britain.

When does love and care overflow into a morass of sentimental slop? I’m afraid it’s when parents, friends, teachers and lecturers all conspire to convince hapless children and young people that they are indeed special and deserving of every success.

In reality by definition only a very small minority of children can be special. After all this is a relative concept that aims to distinguish the average and inferior from the ‘special’. Otherwise the term becomes meaningless.

It does appear that young girls are the most vulnerable to this misplaced ego boost. It’s not easy growing up in a social environment where celebrity culture is so pervasive and the ‘body beautiful’ is seen as a passport to popularity, sexual success and enrichment. The idea that working hard, studying, and being socially aware is the best way to achieve a fulfilling life, is not one that appears to figure very highly in many young peoples’ minds.

It often seems that in every area of our lives we can only succeed or pass. The concept of failure has to be avoided at all costs. This approach can even be found in the world of education. Colleges seem to operate a system that awards a pass to all students who just regularly turn up for lessons and who submit their work on time. Now that may well be an achievement but should it merit a ‘pass’ irrespective of the quality of the work submitted or classes assessed. It appears that there is a received wisdom that it is damaging to children and young people to label them a failure. But if this is the case doesn’t the system devalue real achievement and doesn’t it fail the students who really shine and who are arguably really special?

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earth's rotation, coriolis effect, clockwise, anti-clockwise, atmosphere, ocean, hemisphere

Due to the earth’s rotation, the Coriolis force deflects the atmosphere, oceans, and large objects on the surface of the Earth in an anti-clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise in the southern hemisphere

You may have heard that water flowing down the plug hole in a sink or bath always swirls anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, and that this is due to the Coriolis effect.

The Coriolis effect (or Coriolis force) was first postulated by the French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis in relation to the behaviour of water wheels in 1835, but so far as the Earth is concerned, it is the deflection of the atmosphere and the oceans, and large objects on the surface of the Earth, due to the earth’s rotation around its axis. Cyclones, and jet streams in the upper atmosphere, are two of the more obvious phenomena caused by the Coriolis effect, but the effect also causes certain types of waves to form in the oceans. However because the earth spins relatively slowly, the apparent force that its rotation generates only becomes significant over large distances or long periods of time.

paris gun, first world war, bombardment, coriolis effect, trajectory

In the First World War, the Paris Gun was used to bombard Paris from a range of about 120 km (75 miles). Because of the distance, the Coriolis effect had to be taken account of in the calculations of the trajectory.

The Coriolis effect became important in external ballistics for calculating the trajectories of very long-range artillery shells. The most famous historical example was the Paris gun, used by the Germans during the First World War to bombard Paris in 1918 from a range of about 120 km (75 miles). The distance was so far that the Coriolis effect was substantial enough to affect trajectory calculations. Incidentally, the shells of the gun reached a height of 40 kilometers (25 miles, 131,000 ft) and were the first man-made objects to reach the stratosphere.

However, the direction in which water flows down a plug hole is not influenced by the Coriolis effect, which is tens of thousands of times weaker than other factors such as the existing disturbance in the water, the angular momentum that causes the initial vortex, and the shape of the bowl.

bart simpson, anti-clockwise, coriolis effect

Bart Simpson notices that the water flows down the toilet in an anti-clockwise direction

Despite this, popular entertainment has maintained interest in the Coriolis effect. Bart vs. Australia, the sixteenth episode of the sixth season of The Simpsons, starts with Bart Simpson noticing that the water in his bathroom sink always drains anti-clockwise (counterclockwise in the USA). Bart does not believe Lisa, his sister, who explains that this is due to Coriolis effect, and that in the southern hemisphere the water drains the other way round. To confirm this, Bart makes phone calls to various countries in the southern hemisphere, ending up with a call to Australia. Here a little boy, who lives in the outback, confirms, having also checked with his neighbours, that the toilets and sinks are all draining clockwise. The plot continues with Bart being sued by the boy’s father for the cost of his six-hour ‘collect’ call, with Australia indicting Bart for fraud, the USA wanting to send him to prison to placate the Australian government, Bart having to make a public apology in Australia, and so on.

However in 1962, Ascher Shapiro, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, USA, was able to demonstrate the Coriolis effect on draining water, and this was later repeated by scientists in Sydney, Australia.  But this was only achieved by using a perfectly circular bath 1.8m in diameter  and 15cm deep, and by allowing the water to stand for 24 hours so that any currents from filling would die down. A small outlet, on the outside, meant that the water took about half an hour to drain away. Under these conditions, the Boston researcher reported a tendency for water to swirl anti-clockwise (viewed from above), whilst the scientists in Sydney described seeing water swirling clockwise.

So to observe the Coriolis effect at home, you would need a large but shallow circular bath, and one that’s not affected by any vibration or disturbance, as well as plenty of time.

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